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22 March 2018, source edie newsroom

Britain is on the brink of a subsidy-free renewables "revolution" which could create up to 18GW of new capacity by 2030 and attract £20 billion of investment, analysts have claimed.

Analysis by Aurora suggested 9GW of solar, 5GW to 6GW of onshore wind and 3GW to 4GW of offshore wind could be built without subsidies by the end of the next decade

Aurora Energy Research said the explosion of subsidy-free renewables would largely snuff out the already dim prospects for new combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGTs).

“Back in 2010 at the start of the Electricity Market Reform process in Great Britain, few would have imagined that by 2018 we would be talking about a subsidy-free future for renewables,” said Aurora head of product development Mateusz Wronski.

“Yet, this is where we have arrived, and our research highlights clearly the enormous prize and potential in the market, not only in Great Britain but across Europe.

“This will be a true game-changer for the energy industry and policy makers, with a knock-on effect on baseload technologies as well as flexible generation.”

Analysis by Aurora suggested 9GW of solar, 5GW to 6GW of onshore wind and 3GW to 4GW of offshore wind could be built without subsidies by the end of the next decade. It predicted solar and onshore wind would reach grid parity in the early 2020s, whilst offshore wind would hit the milestone in the late 2020s or the 2030s.

To achieve the projected build out, financing costs would need to be lowered through a better understanding of the merchant risks for renewable generation.

Wronski told Utility Week the renewables sector has already achieved massive reductions in the cost of building and operating assets, adding: “Cost of capital is the final piece of the puzzle that has yet to fall in place.”

He continued: “The critical bit is getting comfortable with the risks and being able to finance these projects at a reasonable rate of return of something like 9 per cent.

“If that doesn’t happen; if financing these merchant renewables occurred at say 13 per cent; then that simply doesn’t work because the cost of capital is too high for merchant renewables to become viable”.

One way of reducing merchant risks would be to “create a benchmark for the industry of a credible worst-case scenario of how low capture prices for renewables could go”.

“This is about the investment community and developers sitting together and working out a common understanding of the risks in this area”, he explained.

Path to subsidy-free solar

Source: Aurora Energy Research

Wronski said the analysis highlighted three main sources of risk to capture prices for renewables: commodity prices, including the carbon price; cannibalisation by other renewables, which depress prices as more come online; and the composition of the energy system and its impact on flexibility.

He said the last of the three was the most underappreciated and least understood, “partly because we really haven’t been in a world where system composition was itself uncertain.”

“If you are to deploy an additional gigawatt of solar when there’s a lot of batteries and electric vehicles, you get a much higher capture price than if you were to deploy the same gigawatt in a system which is very inflexible,” he added.

Subsidy-free Contracts for Difference would be a “game-changer”, according to Wronski, “providing a bridge before a deeper [power purchase agreement] market emerges.” He said they would be essential for offshore wind to achieve Aurora’s projections.

The boom would be even faster and bigger if renewables were able to stack revenues from the capacity market and ancillary and balancing services. Just allowing them to participate in could bring forward grid parity by five years.

Wronski said the growth of subsidy-free renewables would have major implications for the rest of the power sector, reducing the utilisation and profitability of baseload generation but boosting the business case for flexible assets such as peaking plants, batteries and demand-side response (DSR).

If the revolution materialises, Aurora expects just 1GW of new CCGT capacity to be deployed between 2017 and 2030 – a near complete collapse when compared to the government’s 2012 projection of 22GW.

“Batteries which thrive on arbitrage benefit from the additional volatility created by additional renewables, especially solar,” said Wronski. “Similarly, gas reciprocating engines and DSR would benefit in that scenario”.

Impact on CCGTs

Source: Aurora Energy Research

The findings were revealed earlier this week at an event hosted by Aurora in Oxford, during which energy and clean growth minister Claire Perry confirmed that the government would conduct a .

In September, Perry officially opened the UK’s – the 10MW Clayhill solar farm in Bedfordshire. A few months laterHive Energy and Wirsol Energy unveiled plans to build the country’s biggest ever solar farm (350MW) in Kent without any subsidies. T

Tom Grimwood

This article first appeared on edie's sister title website, Harrods Food Halls Shoulder Bag Multi TnrNAK

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Schröder Points Database / Darij Grinberg

This page contains some results and questions about the Schröder points of a triangle and configuration related to these. The dates are the dates of last changes.

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[Schroeder2] [Schroeder3] [Schroeder4] [Schroeder5] [Schroeder6] [Schroeder7]
[Schroeder2] The Schröder points 1. The Schröder point by inversion Schröder point 2. Trilinears of the Schröder point Gergonne-Schröder point X(1155) = SCHRÖDER POINT 3. Jean-Pierre Ehrmann's approach 4. The Schröder point as inversive image of X(55) Weill point 5. The Nagel-Schröder point Nagel-Schröder point 6. The Stutensee point Stutensee point 7. The Mitten-Schröder points Mitten-Schröder points 8. The Bevan-Schröder point Bevan point Bevan-Schröder point 9. Trilinears of the Bevan-Schröder point 10. Some synthetic conjectures about the Bevan-Schröder point 11. Poristically fixed points poristically fixed Fundamental Poristic Theorem. 12. A generalization of the Schröder and Bevan-Schröder points leading to the Darboux cubic Schoute point Longchamps-Schröder point 13. A generalization of the Schröder and Nagel-Schröder points and the Feuerbach hyperbola Droussent pivot
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Strategies, tools, and texts to bring beginning readers and struggling readers to high levels of literacy

TextProject Library

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» Frankly Freddy Blog » Does self-selected reading have a place in a comprehension program?

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Posted by Freddy Hiebert on 20 July 2006

Topics

It’s the last Tuesday before the Institute and I still have lots of questions. One question deals with the role of writing in reading comprehension. It’s been some time since I reviewed the research on the reading-writing connection but, at least based on my own experience as a writer-reader, I’m confident that the more one writes the better one comprehends the texts of others. I’ve also been thinking about the nature of assessments that capture students’ thinking with text. A particular question that I have has to do with tests of background knowledge. Should an assessment capture students’ ability to think about different topics? Or should a comprehension assessment actually measure students’ thinking about particular topics? I need to engage in a substantial amount of thinking, reading, and listening before I can write on the assessment topic. I’m eager to hear Steve Graham and Karen Harris at the Institute talk about their work on writing and comprehension.

One topic on which I’ve also been reflecting but on which I have some background knowledge is the role of self-selected reading in developing high levels of comprehension. The interest generated around Tim Shanahan’s first column as IRA president in Reading Today has gotten me thinking about what I didn’t address in the June 27th “Frankly Freddy” on silent reading. Tim wrote about interpretations of the conclusions about sustained silent reading in the National Reading Panel’s report. Tim made several distinctions in his column but, at least according to my interpretation as a reader, he was concluding that there is no research to justify devoting chunks of instructional time to independent reading of self-selected text.

To engage in a discussion of independent, silent, or self-selected reading, it is important to define the terms and, in particular, describe the contexts in which these kinds of reading occur.

Silent reading: Silent reading is reading without overt vocalization. Silent reading can—and should—occur as part of teacher-directed lessons. To be responsible for one’s own reading, even in the early stages of reading, is important. Teachers can ask a question that requires students to read a portion of a text silently, followed by students’ responses to the question. A choral reading by a small group of students can be followed by a silent reading of the text, with the aim of reading the text smoothly and quickly, while identifying additional information from the text.

And not only were there inexperienced junior members on the team, the leader of the StarCraft programming effort had never architected a shipping game engine. Bob Fitch had been programming games for several years with great results but his previous efforts were game ports, where he worked within an existing engine, and feature programming for Warcraft I and II, which didn’t require large-scale engine design. And while he had experience as the tech lead for Shattered Nations, that project was canceled, therefore no validation of its architectural decisions was possible.

The team was incredibly invested in the project, and put in unheard of efforts to complete the project while sacrificing personal health and family life. I’ve never been on a project where every member worked so fiercely. But several key coding decisions in the project, which I’ll detail presently, would haunt the programming team for the remainder of the project.

After spending months working to launch Diablo, and further months of cleanup effort and patching afterwards, I returned to help with the reboot of StarCraft. I wasn’t looking forward to diving into another bug-fest, but that’s exactly what happened.

I thought it would be easy to jump back into the project because I knew the Warcraft code so well — I’d literally worked on every component. I was instead terrified to discover that many components of the engine had been thrown away and partially rewritten.

The game’s unit classes were in the process of being rewritten from scratch, and the unit dispatcher had been thrown out. The dispatcher is the mechanism I created to ensure that each game unit gets time to plan what it wants to do. Each unit periodically asks: “what should I do now that I finished my current behavior?”, “should I re-evaluate the path to get where I’m going?”, “is there a better unit to attack instead of the one that I’m targeting now?”, “did the user give me a new command?”, “I’m dead, how do I clean up after myself?”, and so forth.

There are good reasons code needs to be rewritten, but excising old code comes with risks as well. Joel Spolsky said it most eloquently in Things You Should Never Do, Part I :

It’s important to remember that when you start from scratch there is absolutely no reason to believe that you are going to do a better job than you did the first time. First of all, you probably don’t even have the same programming team that worked on version one, so you don’t actually have “more experience”. You’re just going to make most of the old mistakes again, and introduce some new problems that weren’t in the original version.

The Warcraft engine had taken months of programming effort to get right, and while it needed rework for new gameplay features, a fresh programming team was now going to spend a great deal of time relearning lessons about how and why the engine was architected the way it was in the first place.

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